Cardiac Surgeries: Some children are born with a special heart, which may have to be corrected for the heart to function normally. These can be life saving if proper techniques are used and performed with efficiency and expertise by well-trained and experienced doctors. Some of the defects that are commonly treated using surgical methods are:
Ventricular Septal Defect
A defect in the septum/wall between the ventricles, which separates the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. If there is a defect between the two are mixed and can produce symptoms such as murmurs. These have to be closed using surgery some of the newer techniques are AmplatzerSeptaloccluden device, this is a self-expandable device made of nitril and Dacron fabric. After it’s placement in the ventricles it becomes a part of the membranous septum and seals the defective hole.
Atrial Septal Defect
It is a defect in the septum/wall between the two atrium. The defect causes mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. This is also closed using AmplatzerSeptaloccluden device.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
Patent DuctusArteriosus (PDA)is a congenital disorder in the heart where the ductusarteriosus(blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta), which should close by birth, fails to do so and remains communicating. This PDA allows oxygenated blood from the heart to flow back to the lungs, which in turn affects the neonate’shealth, as there is difficulty in inflating the lungs. This can be corrected with minimal surgical methods either through ligation or coils or bio plugs.
Aortic Stenosis is referred to as narrowing of aortic valve between the left ventricle and the aorta. It can produce syncope, angina, dyspnea etc. It can be surgically treated in infants by using balloon valvuloplasty. This is a minimally invasive technique in which a balloon is inserted and inflated to stretch the valve to allow greater flow.
Coarctation of Aorta is a congenital condition where the aorta narrows in the area where the ductusarteriosus inserts. This causes the left ventricle to work harder to generate a higher pressure to deliver the required amount of blood. It can be corrected by surgical intervention by resecting the narrow segment or using a stent to increase the lumen size.
Foramen Ovale is a hole or communication between the left and the right atrium. The blood is bypassed between both atrias. The foramen closes by birth but may remain open. It can also be treated using biomaterials.
Tetralogy of Fallotis
Tetralogy of Fallotis a congenital heart defect, whichinvolves multiple anomalies and mainly present as cyanotic heart disease. It can be corrected using microscopic surgery, which is aimed to correct all anomalies.
Transposition of Great Vessels
Transposition of Great Vessels is a group of congenital heart defects, which involves and abnormal arrangement of great vessels (superior/inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins and aorta). The abnormalities are clamped and the vessels are placed correctly as they should be using a technique called arterial switch.
Abdominal/Gastro Intestinal Tract Surgeries: They are performed in any disease arising due to defect in the abdominal wall/tract.
- Hernias (abnormal protrusions) such as omphalocele, gastrochisis.
- Esophageal atresia – The feeding tube is malformed into a blind pouch.
- Tracheoesophageal fistula – A communication between trachea (airway) and esophagus (feeding tube) which can be life threatening and dangerous.
- Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis – An increase in muscles of stomach valves which delays or hampers movement of food from stomach to intestines.
- Removal of meconium plugs
- Hirschsprung’s Disease - A condition where nerve supply to the stomach valve is not present. The surgery typically involves reformation of the muscles to perform their action.
- Imperforate anus – The anal meatus is non-communicating or not externally opened to pass stools.
Urology Surgeries: They are done in conditions that are present in relation to Kidney, ureters, bladder, genitals etc.
- Undescended testes – The testes have to be externally placed in the scrotal sac else it can cause sterility in males. If the testes are located elsewhere they have to be manually placed in the scrotum using surgical intervention.
- Hypospadiasis – The urinary meatus is placed elsewhere in the penis. The meatus can be repaired and placed as per anatomical position.
Separation of Conjoined Twins – Twins that are joined in the uterus have been successfully separated.
Childhood Tumors or growths such as neuroblastoma, Wilm’stumor, Liver tumors, Teratomasetc. can also be removed using minimal invasive surgical techniques.