Plastic Surgery: It is a branch of surgery, which performs corrections or restores of form of the body for both for medical and aesthetic purposes. It commonly involves the transfer of skin tissue which are commonly acquired from either recipient (autografts) or donors (allografts) or from different species (xenografts). It is broadly divided into:
Reconstructive – It mainly consists of regaining/correcting functional impairment of the organs. It may be done in cases of
- Burns - contractures
- Congenital deformities such as cleft lip and palate, ear construction etc.
- Cancer etc.
The most common reconstructive procedure includes tumour removal, laceration repair, scar repair, breast reconstruction after mastectomy and breast reduction plasty. The techniques used are to perform microsurgery and also use flaps of skin, muscle, bone, fat or a combination to cover a defect by connecting the blood supply.
Cosmetic – This is an optional form of treatment mainly aimed to increase the person’s appearance. Cosmetic surgery is performed using latest techniques and an aim to leave a scar less and healthy feeling body. Some of the body areas that can be treated cosmetically are:
Liposuction or “removal of fat deposits”
Removal of fat deposits by suction technique or ultrasonic energy.
Phalloplasty or “penile liposuction”
Reconstruction of a penis by surgery.
Buttock augmentation or “buttock lift”
Enhancements of buttocks using silicone implants or fat grafting from other areas of the body.
Lip enhancement or “lip job”
Surgical improvement of lip fullness through enlargement.
- Cryolipolysis or “burning of fat cells” – It uses a medical device to destroy fat cells. It relies on controlled cooling for non-invasive local reduction of fat cells.
- Otoplasty or “ear job” – Reshaping the ear mostly done by pinning the protruding ear closer to the head.
- Cheek augmentation or “cheek implant” – Reshaping of the cheeks by using implants.
- Genioplasty or “jaw & cheek reshaping” – Reshaping and augumentation of chin using implants.
- Laser skin rejuvenation & resurfacing – The main is to lessen the depth of the skin pores.
- Rhytidectomy or “face and neck lift” – It mainly aims to remove the wrinkles and signs of aging from face, neck and eyebrows.
- Keloid/scar removal post- improper healing process – Keloids are formed when the body stops to produce new tissues during healing. This leads to over abundance of fibrous protein and collagen.
- Botox injections – It is protein and neurotoxin produced by a bacterium. Cosmetically, it improves the appearance of moderate to severe frown lines.
- Smile correction – Full mouth rehabilitation helps in fixing loose teeth, badly worn out teeth, loss of facial height, difficulty in eating etc. Smile correction can improve the appearance, function and comfort of teeth.
- Weight Loss Surgeries such gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, Roux en Y gastric bypass etc. – these are performed primarily in people who are obese. The main aim of these surgeries either reduces the size or removes a portion of the stomach to help reduce weight.
- And other treatments as prevalent in the industry.
Craniofacial surgery – It mainly deals with anomalies of craniofacial skeleton and soft tissues.
Hand surgery – It mainly concerns treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the hand and wrist such as correction of congenital malformations of the upper extremities and peripheral nerve problems.