Urology deals with medical and surgical diseases of male and female genitourinary system or tract. It can be commonly divided into a few branches such as:
It deals with closed manipulation of the urinary tract with use of minimally invasive techniques or surgical procedures. It is used for surgeries of prostrate, urothelium, stones and simple urethral and ureteral procedures.
It is a rapidly evolving branch and has replaced open surgical procedures. It also covers typical forms of robotic surgeries that are performed to treat various conditions. It is commonly used to treat prostrate, kidney and ureter.
It deals with cancers of the genitourinary tract. The treatment of choice may either be conservative (with medication) or surgical, which is decided upon the extent and nature of the type of cancer.
It concerns controlling and manipulation of nervous system of the genitourinary system. Some neurologic illnesses such as multiple sclerosis, parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injury etc. may affect and cause abnormal urination, urinary incontinence, muscle hyperactivity, sphincter irregularities etc. The treatments involve self-catheterization, anti-cholinergic drugs, and injection of botulin toxin to increase control and neuro modulation of the sacral nerves.
It mainly involves disorders in children such as undescended testes (cryptorchidism), congentital abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, under developed external genitalia, reflux of urine from ureter or urinary incontinence which may be beyond the age to able to control.
It mainly concerns the male genital functions such as infertility, erectile dysfunctions and ejaculatory disorders. It also deals with fertilization procedures, vasectomy reversals and implantation of penile prosthesis.
It is a specialized field of urology that restores the structure and function of the genitourinary tract. These may commonly be done secondary to accidents; gunshot wounds, industrial accidents, straddle injuries, obstructions, blockages, strictures, and occasionally post childbirth. These are treated by use of newer treatments such as internal optic urethroscopy, which involves fiber optics to view the internal organs and urethroplasty used for treating strictures replacing the diseased tissue with healthy new tissue. Currently newer techniques also employ the use of tissue expanders, which allow the patients own tissue to be expanded for full and natural reconstruction result.
It is a branch of urology that deals with diseases of female organs such as hyperactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapse, and urinary incontinence. These are treated using minimally invasive techniques that such as laparoscopic & robotic repair with the use of mesh.